top of page



The Vedic tradition is a part of the Indian cultural tradition that has been traced back, archaeologically, to about 8000 BC (Feuerstein et al, 1995).  Astronomy has a long history on the Indian subcontinent stretching from pre-historic to modern times. Some of the earliest roots of Indian astronomy can be dated to the period of Indus Valley civilisation or earlier. Astronomy later developed as a discipline of Vedanga, or one of the "auxiliary disciplines" associated with the study of the Vedas, dating 1500 BCE or older. The oldest known text is the Vedanga Jyotisha, dated to 1400–1200 BCE (with the extant form possibly from 700 to 600 BCE).  Two philosophical systems at the basis of Indian physics—and metaphysics—are Samkhya and Vaisesika. Samkhya, which is an ancient system that goes back to the 3rd millennium BC, posits 25 basic categories together with 3 constituent qualities, which evolve in different ways to create the universe at the microcosmic as well as the macrocosmic levels. It also presupposes a “potential” (tanmatra) to be more basic than the material entity. Vaisesika is a later system which is an atomic theory with the non-atomic ground of ether, space, and time upon which rest four different classes of indestructible atoms combine in a variety of ways to constitute all matter; it also considers the mind to be atomic (Kak, 1999). ​The Purnamidam shloka found in Isha Upanishad (Ishopanishad) explains Infinity.  ​ॐ पूर्णमदः पूर्णमिदं पूर्णात्पुर्णमुदच्यते पूर्णस्य पूर्णमादाय पूर्णमेवावशिष्यते ॥ ॐ शान्तिः शान्तिः शान्तिः ॥ Om Poornam-adah Poornam-idam That (there) is complete/infinite, This (here) is complete/infinite Poornaat Poornam-udachyate Completeness arises from completeness Poornasya Poornam-aadaaya If completeness is taken away from completeness Poornam-eva-vashishyate Only completeness remains Om Shantih Shantih Shantih OM peace, peace, peace Meaning of words: poornam – infinity/completeness; adah – there; idam – here; poornaat – from infinity/completeness; udachyaté – arises; poornasya – from infinity/completeness; aadaaya – remove; eva – only; vashishyaté – remains.  For the matter of information in this website we conclude writing here. learners may research on Vedic Astronomy and Ancient Indian Space knowledge and share their thoughts on the forum page.


The space activities in India started with the setting up of Indian National Committee for Space Research (INCOSPAR) in 1962. Initial years saw the work on atmospheric studies with the establishment of Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) near Thiruvananthapuram at southern end of the country. The Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) established in 1969, took the space programme to altogether new level in the coming years with programmes aimed at harnessing the benefits of space technology for the national and societal development. Department of Space (DOS) is the responsible for promoting the development of space science, technology, and applications towards achieving self-reliance and facilitating all-around development of the nation. DOS implements the space programmes through Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and other national laboratories. ISRO is the national space agency, responsible for research and development as well as execution of projects related to space science, technology and applications. ISRO is also responsible for research and development in cutting edge technologies. To address the vast areas of the mandate, different centers and units have been created by ISRO, each specializing in specific domains of space activities like launch vehicles, satellites, payloads, applications, launchpad, ground segment, etc.


NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), a wholly owned Government of India company, under the administrative control of Department of Space (DOS) is the commercial arm of Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the primary responsibility of enabling Indian industries to take up high technology space related activities and is also responsible for promotion and commercial exploitation of the products and services emanating from the Indian space programme. Subsequent to space reforms of 2020, the role and scope of NSIL has been enhanced in addition to the primary business areas to include owning satellites for earth observation and communication, and providing satellite services, building satellites and launch vehicles and providing launch services. The space sector has been opened up for private participation subsequent to the space reforms announced by the Government of India in 2020. Indian National Space Promotion and Authorization Center (IN-SPACe) is the independent nodal agency under DOS to permit and oversee the activities of private entities in the country.


Indian Space Sector was valued at USD 9.6 Bn in 2020, contributes 2%-3% of the global space economy. The size of the sector is expected to reach USD 13 Bn by 2025, and by 2030 India further aims to capture a larger share of close to 10% of the global economy. Acknowledging the role of Private Sector, Prime Minister of India Shri Narendra Modi said "India needs to increase its share in the global space industry and the private sector will play a big role in that” Currently, the sector sees involvement from over 400 industrial firms including large Indian conglomerates as well as SMEs, working under the leadership of ISRO to develop subsystems for space launch and ground infrastructure. Indian start-ups are taking active interest in the space market, from just 1 start-up in space sector in 2012, industry has grown to 101 start-ups in 2022 according to the Economic Survey. The funding received by these start-ups reached a total of USD 108.52 Mn in 2022 from 67.2 Mn in 2021


Increasing demand for satellite services With new innovations in areas of satellite communication and other areas of application including geospatial data-based services, there is an increased demand for space-based services and thereby the need for more players to venture into upstream and downstream sectors in space to provide commercial offerings. Favourable policy changes Space Activities Bill and 10 draft policies are in the pipeline, which will provide the necessary regulatory framework and procedural guidelines for private space activities, as well as open new channels for investments and technological support for the sector International Collaborations ISRO has signed six agreements with four countries for launching foreign satellites between 2021-2023. From a commercial standpoint, these launches hold a potential of USD 141 Mn to be earned in revenues Encouraging Private Players The Private players can participate in setting up of ground stations for space crafts which constitutes 48% of the space sector budget. They can also venture in applications of space technology which contributes 45% of the space economy. Also, small satellite segment and component manufacturing are predicted to be emerging sectors for private participation. Emerging areas in the global sector Future opportunities in fascinating areas like space tourism and commercial recovery of space resources are coming up, promising enormous scope of growth in the sector Complementary Aviation and Defence sector Bengaluru is ranked among top 3 in global aerospace and defence cities in attracting foreign investment and India is one of the top countries in the world in terms of defence procurement and allied production. Strong Adjacent industrial Support India is a leading innovator in machine tools, capital goods with robust IT and software sector. (SOURCE: Investindia)


Recently, the government approved the Indian Space Policy – 2023. The policy states that the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), as the national space agency will focus primarily on the research and development of new space technologies and applications and on expanding the human understanding of outer space. The policy is described as a futuristic one that will position India and launch the Indian Space Sector in the 21st century. What are the Highlights of the Policy? The policy creates four distinct, but related entities, that will facilitate greater private sector participation in activities that have usually been the traditional domain of the ISRO. InSPACe (Indian National Space Promotion and Authorisation Centre): It will be a single window clearance and authorisation agency for space launches, establishing launch pads, buying and selling satellites, and disseminating high-resolution data among other things. It will also share technologies, products, processes and best practices with NGEs (non-government entities and this will include private companies) and government companies. New Space India Limited (NSIL): It will be responsible for commercialising space technologies and platforms created through public expenditure, as well as, manufacturing, leasing, or procuring space components, technologies, platforms and other assets from the private or public sector. Department of Space: It will provide overall policy guidelines and be the nodal department for implementing space technologies and, among other things, co-ordinate international cooperation and coordination in the area of global space governance and programmes in consultation with the Ministry of External Affairs. It will also create an appropriate mechanism to resolve disputes arising out of space activity. Why Private Sector Participation is Important? To Increase Global Space Economy: India’s share in the global space economy is less than 2% at present and the space policy will help it increase substantially to 10% in the future. This policy will pave the way forward with much-required clarity in space reforms and augment private industry participation to drive the space economy opportunity for the country. Space Exploration: Allowing private companies to perform space missions has benefited nations such as the United States by promoting private-sector investment. International Competitiveness: With the increasing global interest in space exploration, private companies can help countries remain competitive in the industry. Flexibility: Private companies are often more agile and adaptable than government agencies, allowing them to respond more quickly to changing market demands and technological advancements. What is the Significance of the Policy? Key Steps to Boosting India's Space Industry: The policy will develop space industry standards, promote identified space activities and work with academia to widen the space ecosystem and enable industry-academia linkages. Innovation and Maintaining India's Leadership: ISRO will focus on research into outer space. This will lead to the development of new space technologies and applications to maintain India’s edge in the areas of space infrastructure, space transportation, space applications, capacity building and human spaceflight. Expanding India's Footprint in Space: To augment space capabilities; enable, encourage and develop a flourishing commercial presence in space; use space as a driver of technology development and derived benefits in allied areas; pursue international relations, and create an ecosystem for effective implementation of space applications among all stakeholders.


List of notable Space Companies in india ISRO •Established – 1969 •Ownership – Government of India, Dept. of Space •Service – Space Antrix Corporation •Established – 1992 •Ownership – Government of India PSU •Service – Satellite systems, Launch Vehicles, Technology & Consultancy. New Space India Limited •Established – 2019 •Ownership – Government of India PSU •Service – Satellite systems, Launch Vehicles, Technology & Consultancy. Godrej Aerospace •Established – 1897 •Ownership – Private •Service – Rocket Engine, Spacecraft Thrusters. Larsen & Toubro •Established – 1938 •Ownership – Private •Service – Rocket Bossters, Spacecraft, Space Infrastructure. Agnikul Cosmos •Established – 2017 •Ownership – Private •Service – Launch Vehicle Bellatrix Aerospace •Established – 2015 •Ownership – Private •Service – Satellite System, Launch Vehicle. Dhruva Space •Established – 2012 •Ownership – Private •Service – Satellite Pixxel •Established – 2019 •Ownership – Private •Service – Earth Imaging Satellize •Established – 2018 •Ownership – Private •Service – Satellite Skyroot Aerospace •Established – 2018 •Ownership – Private •Service – launch Vehicle Azista Aerospace •Established – 2019 •Ownership – Private •Service – Satellite Readers are requested to search for more promising Indian space companies and share their story on forum page


Are you a Space Entrepreneur?

Tell your Story, Share updates, Find support and Network with Space Companies  on ANTARIKSH FORUM AND SPACE GROUPS 

bottom of page